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Such analogues are of great importance for drug testing. San Diego-based Organovo has been at the forefront of commercializing 3-D bioprinting of tissues for medical research. The company has successfully printed patches of tissues of the liver, lung, heart and kidneys for use by research partners. This application of artificial organs has tremendous potential to accelerate the drug development process, lower costs, and reduce the need for animal and clinical testing. Skin is the largest organ of the human body, and a highly complex one.

Recreating the skin involves imparting the sensations of touch, pressure and temperature to the artificial material.

Such an artificial skin would no doubt be of great value to burn victims and patients undergoing extensive surgery. However, an application that is now the fuel for science-fiction movies could soon be a reality: providing robots with sensory inputs. SmartCore, a project funded by the European Research Council and executed by researchers at the Graz University of Technology in Austria aims to create a material that would respond to varied stimuli. To achieve this, the team has developed a novel material that is lined with an array of nanosensors whose sensitivity far exceeds that of the human skin.

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These cores receive the stimuli and transmit them to the robotic system. The team aims to display the prototype by , after which specific applications would be explored. Inside the bags, though, the researchers managed to nurture fetal lambs. Inflammatory arthritis is characterized by damaging inflammation that does not occur as a normal reaction to injury or infection. This type of inflammation is unhelpful and instead causes damage in the affected joints, resulting in pain, stiffness and swelling.

Inflammatory arthritis can affect several joints, and the inflammation can damage the surface of the joints and also the underlying bone. The word "arthritis" means "joint inflammation," but inflammation may also affect the tendons and ligaments surrounding the joint. Degenerative or mechanical arthritis refers to a group of conditions that mainly involve damage to the cartilage that covers the ends of the bones.

The main job of the smooth, slippery cartilage is to help the joints glide and move smoothly. This type of arthritis causes the cartilage to become thinner and rougher. To compensate for the loss of cartilage and changes in joint function, the body begins to remodel the bone in an attempt to restore stability. This can cause undesirable bony growths to develop, called osteophytes. The joint can become misshapen.

This condition is commonly called osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis can also result from previous damage to the joint such as a fracture or previous inflammation in the joint. Soft tissue musculoskeletal pain is felt in tissues other than the joints and bones. The pain often affects a part of the body following injury or overuse, such as tennis elbow , and originates from the muscles or soft tissues supporting the joints.

Back pain can arise from the muscles, discs, nerves, ligaments, bones, or joints.

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Back pain may stem from problems with organs inside the body. It can also be a result of referred pain, for example, when a problem elsewhere in the body leads to pain in the back.

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There may be a specific cause, such as osteoarthritis. This is often called spondylosis when it occurs in the spine. Imaging tests or a physical examination may detect this. A "slipped" disc is another cause of back pain, as is osteoporosis , or thinning of the bones. If a doctor cannot identify the exact cause of back pain, it is often described as "non-specific" pain. Connective tissues support, bind together, or separate other body tissues and organs.

They include tendons, ligaments, and cartilage.

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ISBN 13: 9781489979568

CTD involves joint pain and inflammation. The inflammation may also occur in other tissues, including the skin, muscles, lungs, and kidneys. This can result in various symptoms besides painful joints, and it may require consultation with a number of different specialists. A bacterium, virus, or fungus that enters a joint can sometimes cause inflammation. A joint infection can often be cleared with antibiotics or other antimicrobial medication.

However, the arthritis can sometimes become chronic, and joint damage may be irreversible if the infection has persisted for some time. Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in human cells and several foods. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys.

From there, it passes out in urine.

Design of Artificial Human Joints & Organs : Subrata Pal :

Some people have high levels of uric, acid because they either naturally produce more than they need or their body cannot clear the uric acid quickly enough. Uric acid builds up and accumulates in some people and forms needle-like crystals in the joint, resulting in sudden spikes of extreme joint pain or a gout attack. It commonly affects a single joint or a small number of joints, such as the big toe and hands. It usually affects the extremities. One theory is that uric acid crystals form in cooler joints, away from the main warmth of the body. Rheumatoid arthritis RA occurs when the body's immune system attacks the tissues of the body, specifically connective tissue, leading to joint inflammation, pain, and degeneration of the joint tissue.


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Cartilage is a flexible, connective tissue in joints that absorb the pressure and shock created by movement like running and walking. It also protects the joints and allows for smooth movement. Persistent inflammation in the synovia leads to the degeneration of cartilage and bone. This can then lead to joint deformity, pain, swelling, and redness.

RA causes premature mortality and disability and it can compromise quality of life. Conditions it is linked to include cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease and stroke. Diagnosing RA early gives a better chance of learning how to manage symptoms successfully.

This can reduce the impact of the disease on quality of life. Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage , joint lining and ligaments, and underlying bone of a joint. The joints most often affected by osteoarthritis are those that get heavy use, such as hips, knees, hands, the spine, the base of the thumb, and the big toe joint.

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This can refer to a number of types of arthritis. Arthritis in childhood can cause permanent damage to joints, and there is no cure. However, remission is possible, during which time the disease remains inactive. This is thought to affect between 2 and 10 people in every , in the general population. Among people with RA, it may affect 30 to 70 people per , Septic arthritis is a joint inflammation that results from a bacterial or fungal infection. It commonly affects the knee and hip.

It can develop when bacteria or other disease-causing micro-organisms spread through the blood to a joint, or when the joint is directly infected with a microorganism through injury or surgery. Bacteria such as Staphylococcus , Streptococcus , or Neisseria gonorrhoeae cause most cases of acute septic arthritis. Organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans cause chronic septic arthritis.

This is less common than acute septic arthritis. Septic arthritis may occur at any age.


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In infants, it may occur before the age of 3 years. The hip is a common site of infection at this age. Septic arthritis is uncommon from 3 years to adolescence. Children with septic arthritis are more likely than adults to be infected with Group B Streptococcus or Haemophilus influenzae if they have not been vaccinated. The incidence of bacterial arthritis caused by infection with H. The following conditions increase the risk of developing septic arthritis:. Septic arthritis is a rheumatologic emergency as it can lead to rapid joint destruction. It can be fatal. Fibromyalgia affects an estimated 4 million adults in the U.

S, or around 2 percent of the population. The person may experience abnormal pain processing, where they reacts strongly to something that other people would not find painful. There may also be tingling or numbness in the hands and feet, pain in the jaw, and digestive problems. The causes of fibromyalgia are unknown, but some factors have been loosely associated with disease onset:.

Psoriatic arthritis is a joint problem that often occurs with a skin condition called psoriasis. It is thought to affect between 0. Most people who have psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis develop psoriasis first and then psoriatic arthritis, but joint problems can occasionally occur before skin lesions appear. The exact cause of psoriatic arthritis is not known, but it appears to involve the immune system attacking healthy cells and tissue. Gross anatomy also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthro- ponomy is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision.